Ibn Jawziyyah says,

  • “Hindaba temperament changes according to the season. It is cold and wet in winter, hot and dry in summer and mild in spring and autumn. In general, Hindaba is cold and dry. Hindaba is beneficial and cools the stomach and causes constipation.”

  • “When Hindaba, especially wild Hindaba, is cooked and eaten with vinegar, it constipates even more and is more favourable for the stomach and invigorating. [It] strengthens the stomach and opens the clogs in the kidneys, spleen, veins and intestines. It … clears and purifies the kidneys and helps them against the various hot and cold aches.”

  • “The sour Hindaba is the best for the liver, while its extract helps against (jaundice), especially when mixed with wet fennel extract. [It] cleanses and clears the chest and dissipates the heat of irritated blood and bile.”