A September 2019 study by the Sleep Research & Treatment Center of the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center in Hershey, Pennsylvania found that, “… achieving normal sleep may be protective for some people with [high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease or stroke]…"

The researchers said, "Short sleep duration should be included as a useful risk factor to predict the long-term outcomes of people with these health conditions and as a target of primary and specialized clinical practices."