A September 2019 study by the University of Lincoln found, “neither whey-protein based shakes nor milk-based formulas enhanced the rate of muscle recovery following resistance training when compared to a carbohydrate-only drink.”

"While proteins and carbohydrates are essential for the effective repair of muscle fibres following intensive strength training, our research suggests that varying the form of protein immediately following training does not strongly influence the recovery response or reduce muscle pain.

"We would hypothesise that well balanced daily nutrition practices would influence recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness to a greater extent."