A July 2019 report by the University of California finds that, “…exposure of stem cells to e-liquids, aerosols, or nicotine produces a response that leads to [stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion] SIMH."

Dr Zahedi, first author of the report said, “Although originally introduced as safer, [electronic cigarettes], such as Vuse and JUUL, are not harmless…" adding, "Even short-term exposure can stress cells in a manner that may lead, with chronic use, to cell death or disease. Our observations are likely to pertain to any product containing nicotine."