An August 2019 study the University of Birmingham found that,
"Addressing vitamin D deficiency in the UK requires a multi-disciplinary approach and preventing conditions that are the consequence of deficiency would save the NHS money to the extent that it would more than compensate for the money needed to implement flour fortification at a national level."
"We now hope that UK policy makers will consider a new national policy to fortify foods such as wheat flour with vitamin D to address this serious health issue. This will lead to significant benefits for the population, particularly the most vulnerable groups."
"We have provided compelling evidence that a new strategy is not only safe but would also improve vitamin D intake, which in turn would enhance the health of millions in England and Wales.
"Most previous research into strategies to improve population vitamin D intake have focused only on supplementation programmes, which are generally expensive and not sustainable in the long term.
"Our study showed that, even though supplements are still a viable option for those at a higher risk, food fortification strategies should be prioritized as a response to the rising prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, as it is a safe and cost-saving option.”